In the same way that biology contributes to the formation of the scientific conception of the world, it has a fundamental meaning in cognitive development. By means of the biological content, the student is helped to develop logical thinking and his capacity for inductive and deductive reasoning, and consciously assimilates biological knowledge, which allows him to know the living world and transform it. The study of biology, directly related to the perception of the beautiful in nature, has great significance in the aesthetic education of students, understood not only as the ability to observe the perfection of the living world, but also the ability to collaborate in the creation of the beautiful and in the transformation of the surrounding world. Biological excursions and practical work in contact with nature, as well as knowledge of hygienic measures, contribute to the physical education of students. Taking into account the above, biology must include a system of knowledge and skills essential and useful in social life (theoretical core), which contributes to the integral formation of the personality of the student. From the analysis of the topics presented and taking into account the experience of the authors of this material in which it forms part of the system of fundamental knowledge and skills, the most general theses or conceptions, called governing ideas, are established. with the programming axes of biology. The guiding ideas reflect the generalizations that express the knowledge system and working methods of the biological sciences, which can serve as a valuable document for teachers, leaders and researchers.